Slap The Wizard

Jumat, 14 Desember 2018

iPad: Delete old iTunes movies to gain more storage

iPad: Delete old iTunes movies to gain more storage

With its large screen, your iPad is perfect for watching movies and TV shows. Matching footage is provided by Apple with the iTunes app via download. You can then watch downloaded movies without an internet connection, for example on the plane. But I recommend you to clean up the storage every now and then. You can find out how to do this in this article.

Movies and series are very easy to save on the iPad. Keep in mind, however, that video content in particular consumes a lot of storage space. An episode of a series can quickly claim a gigabyte of storage. I advise you to delete movies and TV shows that you have seen from the memory of your iPad.

How to delete movies and TV shows from your iPad
  1. Activate the default app "Settings" on the home screen of your iPad with a tap of your finger.
  2. Then decide on the left side of the screen for the entry "General".
  3. Then tap "Storage & iCloud Usage" on the right side of the screen.
  4. Then in the "Storage" area, tap the "Manage storage" entry with a tap.
  5. In the list of apps that appears on the screen, select the "Videos" entry.
  6. The screen will now display a list of all movies and series episodes stored in memory. Swipe from right to left over the entry you want to delete and then tap "Delete" to the right of the entry.

How to remove purchased music from your iPad
Because of the significantly smaller file size, it is not as efficient to erase music from the iPad, as it is the case with videos. However, individual songs often have a size around the ten MB. So the crowd does it when you clean up your music store.

  1. To erase music stored on your iPad, follow the instructions above until step 4. In step 5, instead of the "Videos" entry, choose "Music."
  2. Swipe your finger right over "All Tracks" and tap "Delete" to remove all locally stored songs from memory. Alternatively, remove individual titles using the same method.

Reactivate purchased content for free
If you want to transfer purchased content back to your iPad later, that's no problem. You can find your purchased movies on iTunes by tapping "Downloads" at the bottom of the screen. You can find music tracks in the app "Music". Your purchased titles are stored in Apple's iCloud and can be transferred back to your device at any time with a tap of the cloud icon to be available even without an Internet connection. Costs are incurred when re-downloading neither movies nor music.

Transfer contacts between two iPhones without iTunes

Transfer contacts between two iPhones without iTunes

On most iPhones, the "Contacts" app is full of addresses, phone numbers, e-mail addresses and the like of family and friends. But what about if you want to export this data from your smartphone? With the free app Contacts Backup (1.99 Euro Pro version) it is possible to export, save or transfer the contacts to a new device.

The contact list on the iPhone is usually very valuable. You can back up your data via the Apple service iCloud. However, if you do not want to entrust the company from Cupertino with your data or simply want to make an uncomplicated backup of the addresses on your device or in the cloud, you can use the Contacts Backup app.

How to save all contacts from your iPhone in different formats
1. Download Contacts Backup from Apple's App Store and launch the application.

2. To save your data, tap "Export". When prompted, allow the app to access your contacts.

3. Then decide whether you want to save "All Contacts" or "Selected Contacts" only individual entries from the address book stored on your iPhone. If you choose the latter option, your address book will open. Mark here the contacts you want to include in the backup and finally tap on "Done" in the upper right corner. Then tap on "Next".

4. Decide now on the format in which the contacts are to be exported. You can choose from Excel, Gmail (csv), Outlook (xls), and vCard. Then tap on "Start".

5. Contacts Backup now makes the export. Then back up the data using one of the options offered on your device or in the cloud. Via "E-Mail" you can also have the exported contacts sent to you.

How to back up your contacts in your Dropbox account
If you save the exported contact information to your iPhone, there is a risk that the data backup will be lost with the original data if you lose your smartphone. I therefore recommend that you save the backup remotely. Contacts Backup gives you the easy way to access your Dropbox storage.

1. Create a free account with the cloud service Dropbox. Then tap the gear icon in the bottom right corner of the Contacts Backup home screen.

2. Select the entry Dropbox with a tap and enter the access data to your Dropbox account.

3. Then perform the backup of your contacts as described above.

4. At step 4 of the previous tutorial, you decide to "upload". The backup will then be automatically transferred to your Dropbox account and is secure in case of loss of your smartphone.

Rabu, 12 Desember 2018

The 5 signs that show your team needs to be trained

The 5 signs that show that your team needs to be trained

When you dream your team to be at the top of its performance, your employees sometimes need training. Indeed, the tools and methods evolve constantly and it is essential to follow these changes to stay in the race. Discover below the 5 signs that should encourage you to offer training to your employees!

They lose a crazy time
Because they do not have the right information, or the right method, they disperse, and this obviously to the detriment of their productivity. How many people would save valuable time just by training in the proper use of their email, PowerPoint or Excel?

They do not dare to say that they do not know
If you see them carefully avoiding a subject, if you see the distress in their eyes when you approach a work method or the function of a software it is probably that they do not master it. Not mastering a knowledge or a know-how puts them at odds vis-à-vis their hierarchy. They do not dare to talk about it. To say that they do not know how to do things would sometimes mean that they are incompetent. They will do everything to hide the fact that they do not know.

They are constantly sending the ball
This is the principle of the hot potato: when we do not know, we try to transmit the subject to a colleague. But when the lack of control is shared, the incompetence can circulate between the different members of a team until the abandonment of the task in the meanders of the responsibilities of one and the other.

They are running out
Not having all the skills you need to comfortably carry out your missions has an immediate consequence: the short-term stress that leads to fatigue in the long run. Employees may be demotivated for many reasons, not to provide them with the skills they need.

They are in demand
Finally, you may have a member of your team who will express the need to be trained. Take care to listen to his request: this is probably a strong signal. Of course, it is up to you to validate the adequacy of the requested training and its modalities. But if you want your teams to stop wasting time, to hide the dust under the carpet, and to send the ball back, you have the solution: offer them to develop their skills, think training!

We can support you in your approach especially in the fields of Data (Big Data, Data Science, Business Intelligence), IT (Databases, Networks, IS, Development), Office or  PAO software or on your projects!

Bose Home Speaker 500 Test: Not Alexa's Intelligence

Bose Home Speaker 500 Test: Not Alexa's Intelligence

The Bose Home Speaker 500 is an excellent wireless speaker that honors the history of the Bose manufacturer and its signature sound so specific sought by many audiophiles. Have it... Read the conclusion Where to buy the Bose Home Speaker 500 at the best price!

In the era of connected smart speakers, the big name of the Bose sound has chosen to release its Home Speaker 500 powered by Amazon Alexa. But does she manage to be as efficient as it is intelligent? Answer in our comprehensive test!

The Bose Home Speaker 500 follows the flagship manufacturer of the audio world by offering a device of appearance, modest, sober, clean. Destined to be forgotten in your living room, it does not do much to stand out from your other home appliances.

We are therefore in the presence of a thick and heavy oval made of brushed metal and pierced all along the bottom by the grid to let the sound of its speakers. At the rear, there is the auxiliary socket jack female to connect a wired device easily. On the front, there is a small screen that displays the time and your current readings (with display of the cover art of the current album), overhung with a LED strip to appreciate the understanding of your actions on the part of the machine.

On the top, the oval now a light gray plastic is also pierced on its contours so you can capture your voice with eight microphones integrated throughout. We find the classic capacitive keys of Alexa devices (action, silence, volume) in bonus of a play / pause button, a key to activate the auxiliary input, and another to manage the Bluetooth. But the most important thing is the 6 numbered buttons that are actually totally customizable buttons. You can set your favorite radio to 1, a particular playlist to 2, and so on.

This upper part is perhaps this one less well worked of all the rest. Although pleasant to the touch and very functional, its flexibility a bit too pronounced that touch is not necessarily very convincing. When the capacitive keys are pressed, there is no physical feedback that returns our pressure, whether it is a hard surface or the click of a button. Here, the frame bends slightly under the finger, which does not offer a satisfactory haptic feedback to the user.

Finally, at the bottom, there are simply feet each with a soft rubber pad for excellent grip. It is also here that you have to connect the power supply angled, which exceeds the blow very discreetly of the body once the device standing. This design works. The Bose Home Speaker 500 exudes sobriety as well as solidity, and has the aura of a high-end product that is expected to perform above the lot the minute we look at it. It must also be said that the good reputation of Bose precedes it.

The main interest of this chamber is obviously its sound. She has a lot of interest in succeeding to prove her worth. And one thing is certain: it definitely is.

Let's start with raw power first. Here, we have a speaker capable of filling the space in no time, with a power more than surprising compared to the small size of the machine. Making my selection of music sound throughout the Humanoid offices did not even require that I push the volume to its maximum, where the sound is still clear and only a few bass lines saturate a little. Staying at the middle setting will be enough to liven up a big party in a 60m² without the slightest problem.

The real surprise of this speaker is none other than his bass. Well defined, they are not less powerful and resonate deeply, perhaps a little too much by default for certain types of music, but nothing prevents to lower them somewhat in the settings of the application. The breath emitted by these makes quickly understand the groove provided in the design of the enclosure: all this is very windy!

The highs are also surprising. Well defined, they are precise, but do not miss as much heat. The metal effect often heard is not present, and the voices that benefit from it are only magnified. It's a real pleasure for the ear. The 360 ​​° sound is perfect to fill a room as well as enjoy the music with a very wide scene, which with these good waves are very well transcribed.

All is not perfect though. You will surely understand: the mediums still lack a little sharpness. The simplest sounds tend to drown in the power of bass or treble and lack definition. Without saying that they are inaudible, far from it: they are still very clear, but would be worth a little more respected.

We really stay on a high-end speaker with an above average audio experience. The Amazon Echo Plus is obviously far behind, but the Google Home Max too: the expertise of Bose gives it a certain lead over its competitors more Tech.

The installation of the Bose Home Speaker 500 is quite simple. It is based primarily on geolocation and Bose Music application. When the speaker is connected for the first time, she asks you to download the famous application: it is with her that you realize your initial configuration.

The first step will be to create your Bose account, required to use the application. Then, simply enter the Wi-Fi credentials you want to connect to. From there, the real customization of your speaker can start. You first give it a name (office, bathroom, office, whatever) and activate or not the possibility for other users to connect to your speaker. We will come back in the use part.

Sharing enabled or offline, it's time to connect your favorite streaming service between Amazon Music, Deezer, SiriusXM and Spotify. Be aware that you can fully connect an account of each service if you wish. Since the speaker is powered by Amazon Alexa, do not expect to find YouTube or Google Play Music at this stage. Moreover, the last configuration allows to activate or not Alexa, and to select the language of use. You will need an Amazon account for this.

As numerous as these options may appear at first glance, the process itself is indeed very simple and the most complicated step of all is to finally enter the passwords of its services. It is a success from this point of view.

In terms of configurations, do not expect to be able to control your sound perfectly. Bose has its signature and holds it, making the only audio settings available are two sliders that can raise or lower the bass and Treble. No precise equalizer for audiophiles.

Bose Home Speaker 500 Test: Not Alexa's Intelligence

In terms of machine settings only, it is again a summary past the first configuration. You can edit the name of your product, change your account and language for Amazon Alexa or enable / disable the famous sharing of your speaker. On small works, we can count the language setting, the display or not of a clock in standby mode, and the automatic attenuation of the screen.

That's all. Although using Amazon Alexa, the forced application by Bose does not allow to review the classical configurations yet important for the voice assistant, including geolocation, and does not allow to discover new skills for the assistant easily even though the speaker is obviously compatible. You'll have to play it the hard way, and search for yourself on your smartphone or computer to maximize the potential of your Bose Home Speaker 500.

Connecting a wired device just plugs in your cable and press "AUX". Connecting any Bluetooth device is like pressing the Bluetooth logo, pairing up as you probably did 1000 times, and playing your music. On this point, the Bose Home Speaker 500 is far from disappointing since it resumes reflexes already well anchored in the average user.

As for the use, it's a totally different thing. The most disappointing point of this forum is the obligation to use the linked application to really control your actions. Without this, you end up with a poorly integrated Alexa who lives more in parallel with the system than he controls, and limited touches that only allow to delay the actions rather than realize them.

Let me give you a concrete example: I added Queen's album A Night at the Opera - from Amazon Music - to one of the preset buttons, making it start automatically as soon as I the key. If I want to go to the next track, Alexa does not work: "go to the next track" only causes a song request, any one, from the assistant.

Bose Home Speaker 500 Test: Not Alexa's Intelligence

No key is provided for this purpose, and the screen - which is not tactile - does not allow any form of interaction. Only the application will allow me to execute this basic command. The screen is all the more dispensable that it is not used by artificial intelligence on simple tasks like display the weather: it is really only to provide the cover of the album in course. Waste.

Remain the six programmable keys, which are a good addition for anyone who already has his wide playlist of evening and his favorite radio. Easily configurable via the application, they are very accessible and do exactly what they are asked to: facilitate access to everyday uses.

Let's add, however, a personal mishap: connected to my Amazon Prime account (which includes some Amazon Music titles for free, including the Queen), the voice assistant refuses to start any music even when everything is perfectly configured and the same operation works perfectly well on an Echo device. Artificial intelligence only has the answer "undefined". Would not it be rather "unrefined"? Launching it from Amazon Music in the Bose Music app is no problem.

The Bose Home Speaker 500 is priced at 445.95 euros, in black or silver. Currently, we can find it in promotion around 400 euros. The Bose Home Speaker 500 is an excellent wireless speaker, which honors the history of the Bose manufacturer and its signature sound so specific sought by many audiophiles. Having it is sure to get you a lot of auditory pleasure, on a wide variety of sounds. 

Bose Home Speaker 500 Test: Not Alexa's Intelligence

However, as a product, the Home Speaker 500 is more than perfectible. This for a simple reason: it presents itself as an intelligent speaker. And this little game, his intelligence exists only in parallel to the audio experience and is not really integrated. If that had been the case, we would have a smart speaker connected crazy. Out of this, it is "only" an excellent speaker.

  • Bose sound
  • Surprisingly powerful bass
  • Sober and well built
  • All the options that are expected

  • Alexa is not really integrated
  • The mid could be better

Netgear Wi-Fi Orbi RBK20: How my passable connection became a canon

Netgear Wi-Fi Orbi RBK20

For a few weeks, I was able to try the Netgear Orbi RBK20 Wi-Fi system. My home connection was suffering from a blanket and was a source of frustration. This solution solved this concern and I wanted to explain how. Little feedback. Who has never complained about the quality of his Wi-Fi? Operators offer more or less tempting offers on their boxes, of course, but it must be admitted that it is common to complain either the limited flow or the insufficient coverage of the network in the house. When it is not the two at a time. It is to remedy this concern that Netgear has launched its Wi-Fi Orbi system.

I was able to try the Orbi RBK20 model at home for a few weeks and I will share my experience here. The Netgear RBK20 Orbi system boasts a surface area of ​​up to 250 m². Alas, I do not have such a large apartment. I live near Paris, in a modest accommodation which I invite you to remember something essential to the smooth running of this article: it consists of two rooms separated by a corridor of about four meters for a total of a little more than 27 m². To this information, also note that I have a classic Livebox Play in the main room connected to the fiber optic.

Operation and installation
The Orbi RBK20 system has a fairly simple operation to understand. It is composed of two modules. The first is a tri-band router that boosts your Wi-Fi connection with four active antennas hidden inside the case. It is based on Wi-Fi 802.11n (2.4 GHz) and 802.11ac (5 GHz), with no surprise beamforming (which concentrates the signal in one place for better performance).

Coupled with the router, there is another case with the identical appearance, but with a different role. This is the satellite (RBS20). Installed in another room of your home, it allows to extend the coverage Wi-Fi without losing flow, in theory at least. The Netgear Orbi application is used to control your Wi-Fi Orbi system. The interface is extremely simple and accompanies you.

The installation is extremely easy to handle thanks to the dedicated Orbi application. Connect your router to the mains and your box and do the same with your satellite (which only needs a power supply to operate). After opening the application, simply create an account, wait for the network to be detected and follow the instructions on the screen. Quite simply. For each step, the interface provides a concise explanation of what is happening via a white text on a blue background of extreme sobriety. Netgear's desire to offer a service adapted to neophytes and, more generally, to all those who are not as tech savvy as the brand's historic consumers, is clearly felt here. There is a reassuring side to that.

During installation, the top of both modules will flash blue. When pairing is complete, the blinking stops to indicate that the system is operational. If the light circle is orange, it means that you will have to slightly bring your satellite closer to your router for proper operation. The color red obviously indicates that the two boxes are too far apart.

Do not panic, the blue light eventually fade out after a while and will not disturb your sleep. Also note that you can opt for a single router RBR20 without the satellite. This solution is more suitable for studios with modest areas and is also less expensive.

We spoke about the reassuring interface of the application, but the Orbi boxes are just as much. Netgear has rid them of all aesthetic aggressiveness and, as a result, no antenna is visible. The RBK20 system adopts an aesthetic approaching, to a certain extent, that of a Google Home. Without going so far as to say that there is a resemblance between the two products, we feel a close enough inspiration.

As already mentioned, the router and the satellite are identical. The two modules are quite impressive with dimensions of 12.7 x 5.08 x 15.24 cm. In the house, they do not go unnoticed, but this aspect is counterbalanced by the mat design, white and curvaceous. Unless you have an extremely unusual interior design, this should not be a problem. On the other hand, even though each of the two devices weighs about 450 grams, I found they were light enough for their size.

Improved Wi-Fi network
By installing an Orbi system, you create a new Wi-Fi network that the application prompts you to rename before setting the password. So I named my network "Welcome citizens" for some reason. And it became my home network for several weeks. Race Results: I will not lie to you that this has revolutionized my life, but I can not deny that my Internet consumption has become considerably more comfortable at different levels.

To summarize very briefly, my Internet speed has been improved significantly, without being stunning. But it's mostly my network coverage that has been very pleasantly boosted. Explanations in a few steps.

For several weeks, I noticed a noticeable improvement in my flow by being near my box. At about one meter from my Livebox alone, I observed downstream speeds running around 170 Mb / s on average on my Samsung Galaxy Note 9. After installing the Orbi router, and at the same distance, I flirted with the 300 Mb / s. As for the upward flow, my average has gone from 230 to 320 Mb / s.

Not spitting on this progression, I was satisfied with this finding, but it was not very tangible everyday. In the main room of my apartment, reducing the loading time of my Netflix series or downloading my Nintendo Switch games was not quite noticeable to be honest. Only Ookla's encrypted speedtests allowed me to know with certainty that my Wi-Fi was enjoying better throughput. Note that on my Dell XPS 13 2018 computer, the differences were significantly more negligible on the average downstream flow:

  • Downstream / upstream rate with the Livebox: 200/180 Mb / s
  • Up / down flow with the Orbi system: 225/300 Mb / s

However, where the Orbi RBK20 system has been quite relevant, it is in my secondary room. The waves emitted by my Livebox were hard to reach this place because, no doubt, the three thick walls on the way (and IKEA generic furniture, but it's anecdotal).

On my smartphone, I shot at 70 Mb / s big maximum down, the average being rather 50 Mb / s. A drastic drop compared to the main room. On my computer, the finding was even worse with an average rate observed at only 10 Mb / s.

Netgear Wi-Fi Orbi RBK20

Thanks to the RBS20 satellite installed in my second room, I was finally able to enjoy very similar connection performance to that offered by the RBR20 router in my larger room. The signal restitution was not quite lossless, but overall I could finally have access to high quality video content without asking if the stream was going to cut every 2 minutes.

 Livebox Play (descending / amount)Orbi system RBK20 (up / down)Orbi router RBR20 only (up / down)
Samsung Galaxy Note 9 (main piece)170/230 Mb / s295/320 Mb / s295/320 Mb / s
Dell XPS 13 2018 (main piece)200/180 Mb / s225/300 Mb / s225/300 Mb / s
Samsung Galaxy Note 9 (secondary part)70/30 Mb / s285/300 Mb / s155/220 Mb / s
Dell XPS 13 2018 (secondary part)10/10 Mb / s220/185 Mb / s70/15 Mb / s
I mentioned earlier that it was possible to only opt for an RBR20 router alone. I have also tried this configuration since the size of my apartment lends itself well. In my secondary room, I was able to enjoy a bitrate of about 155 Mb / s downhill - 90 Mb / s on my computer. Even in this case, the performance remains higher than those offered by default by my Livebox alone.

In other words, with the Orbi router alone, we already get better coverage than that offered by the Livebox alone. However, as can be seen in the table above, the interest of this configuration is sometimes limited according to the situations. My upstream speed on my computer was only slightly improved in the secondary room when I was only connected to the Wi-Fi router.

The features
One of the main features highlighted by the Orbi system is the parental control that can be set from its smartphone. For this, Netgear has joined the platform Disney Circle. In my case, it did not help much since I was the only one to benefit from my network "Welcome citizens". I still took a tour and, in its free version, Circle offers to filter the content that can be accessed by people connected according to their age. You can create several profiles (Kindergarten, Child, Teenager) with different filter levels. A button is also available to cut off Internet access. For more options, you have to pay $ 5 a month.

Let's go back to the Orbi application. The management of your network is a little less fine than on the web interface Netgear Router Orbi (, but it still allows to test the connection rates of the Wi-Fi system and to activate the control to distance from your modules (remember to connect to Wi-Fi Orbi when you activate this option, otherwise it will not work).

It is possible to configure a guest network (especially relevant in the context of a company) and generate a QR Code via the application to share with your friends to give them access to your network. I would have appreciated having better control over the switchover between the 2.4 GHz and 5 GHz networks, but Orbi forces the automatic mode here.

Netgear Wi-Fi Orbi RBK20

Conclusion, price and availability
In practice, the Orbi RBK20 system has proved very relevant in my case. The flow a little limited which I took advantage in the room at the end of my corridor were entitled to a nice leap in performance. The user experience is neat from the interface of the mobile application to the effectiveness of the product through its design.

So I want to recommend the Orbi system. However, the solution proposed by Netgear is quite expensive. Orbi RBK20 system (1 router + 1 satellite) is available at the recommended price of 249 euros, but it regularly takes advantage of promotion that I invite you to monitor closely. If you live in a simple studio, you can always opt for the RBR20 router alone which costs 139 euros.

Here, it's "Bizarre!"

Here, it's "Bizarre!"

The first word you hear is "pride" and the sign that accompanies it is a broad smile that opens all these faces: the mayor, Michèle Picard, his deputy for culture, Bayrem Braiki, the Director the cultural department, Stephanie Issard-Ferrand, and the director of the independent administration's machinery, Françoise POUZACHE. Because this is a new structure that will handle all at once the Theatre of Venissieux, including Françoise POUZACHE is the director, and "Bizarre! "Which was hitherto an association.

After ten years of foreshadowing, "Bizarre! "Is no longer a project, because until now it was under the name Project Bizarre! that his actions were designated. "Born of a strong political will of access to culture for all and taking into account the diversity of artistic forms," ​​Bizarre! "Is firmly rooted in the vénissian territory, metropolitan and regional" ad Michèle Picard.

Out of a total cost of 1,830 million euros, the state contributed $ 1.2 million as part of the Staffing City Policy, the Region 58,000 euros and 572,000 euros municipality. "At a time when some local authorities benefit from austerity to settle scores with the cultural community in Venissieux we choose to continue to spend 9% of our budget to culture. "

In the building of the former Truc (k)
Located in a renovated building that housed the old Truc (k), a mythical theater of the eighties, "Bizarre! "Will have a metropolitan dimension since it will be labeled SMAC (current music scene) as the S2M, an entity that brings together four areas of the agglomeration: Modern Grocery in Feyzin," Bizarre! "In Venissieux. The Periscope Station and The Market-Lyon. Add to this a grant from the DRAC 300 000 euros to share between the four locations.

At the foot of the stage of 142 m2, in a room that will accommodate "390 people standing", Bayrem Braiki tribute to "work behind the scenes" performed by City departments, teams of "Bizarre! "Theatre and all these people "working in unison". Besides this theater, "Bizarre! "Also includes a tray with creation of three rehearsal studios equipped too, including one with a recording room, a media room and a reception area and offices.

After the departure of Michel Jacques, who wore "Bizarre!" Over the last decade and has also scheduled the Parties festival stops, the new machinery will recruit a project manager. " He will be in charge, explains Françoise POUZACHE, programming shows concerts, also open to dance, and residences. Taking into account the aesthetics of "Bizarre! "That is to say, urban cultures, digital arts and world music, we expect thirty cruising speed events. We will have both young emerging artists and amateurs, with open mike nights and early stages. The room can also be rented to turners, respecting of course aesthetics. "

How to pay the price of their new species weird names

How to pay the price of their new species weird names

Whatever you do, do not give them your name. It's corny
Horseflies are tough. Like mosquitoes, they need a meal of blood before they can reproduce. But even a horsefly, this specimen one was special. The first time Bryan Lessard was spotted, it was in the National Collection of Australian insects. As soon as he laid eyes on her round, golden abdomen, draped two translucent honey-colored wings, he knew it, "I said to myself:" If I want one day to give the name of Beyoncé in a species, it is now.""

Until then, the locals knew it as the "golden fly later" but had not been described scientifically. This is no longer the case. In 2011, the artist formerly known-in-the-name-of-fly-to-posterior-golden officially received its new taxonomic name: Scaptia beyonceae. With such a nickname, Lessard hoped it "would become an ambassador callipyge biodiversity."

Taxonomists do not always have a fine opportunity to express themselves. Science is undoubtedly a creative activity, which leads to new knowledge and new standards, which help us to understand ourselves and to understand the world. But getting there is sometimes difficult. With all these data, tedious and meticulous these steps, the scientific process can be completely stultifying and scientific journals studies do not really have the reputation of being great literature.

"The most creative part of the job"
But to name the new species? There, it's party. "Baptizing of things is probably the most creative part of our work taxonomist," said Lessard, scientific organization and Industrial Research of the Australian Commonwealth. It's not that there are no rules: all proposed names must follow the standards established by the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature. Zoologists apply code "to avoid chaos that would create a lack of regulation for naming animals," according to the FAQ code. "Ordinary languages ​​evolve spontaneously in innumerable directions, but biological nomenclature must be an exact tool that conveys a specific meaning for people of all generations," specifies the preface to the first edition of the code, dating from 1961.

Fortunately, under those rules, there is room for maneuver. As is the case for haiku, name the species is an art of the restriction. For example, according to the code, "no author should propose a name that, according to what he knows or what he has reasonable grounds for believing, would be able to hit any manner whatsoever" . Yet scientists have managed to give beetles enthusiasts particularly infamous mushrooms on behalf of President George W. Bush, former Vice President Dick Cheney and former Secretary of Defense Donald Rumsfeld. And truthfully, Carl Linnaeus, the father of modern taxonomy, once gave a stinking weed the name of its main critics.

Part of science and poetry
Baptize a species "combines two types of writing among the most difficult: the technical description and the poem" wrote Judith Winston, curator emeritus at the Virginia Museum of Natural History who sits on the board of the ICZN, in his book Describing Species. But the game is worth the candle. If done properly, its sustainable brand can even leave Homo sapiens, E. coli and Tyrannosaurus rex are all taxonomic names that are found in the popular lexicon after being invented by a scientist. "What really helps is a 5 year old child is able to pronounce it, 'said Winston. Names, is power. "

Baptize species is not a hobby; This is crucial for identifying how species are interconnected from an evolutionary point of view and where they stand in the great web of life. As Winston said, "You can not run a planet with no inventory." Biodiversity is like a vast library in which only a small number of books is referenced: the more than 8 million species considered to be on earth, only a little more than one million have been described. "Imagine organize a library by removing the jacket and the reference of each book, said Lessard. It requires labels on books. It takes cash. "

Leave a trace
Modern taxonomy comes from naming two part system invented by Linnaeus, a Swedish naturalist, in the mid eighteenth century. The system has changed a bit, and as in all disciplines, there are the modernists and there are purists -in this case, those who say we should not combine Greek and Latin roots. "There taxonomists grumpy," says Winston.

Despite its importance, the taxonomy is an art too little appreciated. "It's not glamorous," says Winston. Daphne Fautin, professor emeritus at the University of Kansas and experts sea anemones, agrees. "It's a little perceived as an outdated science, Fautin said. But for us it is essential to use names to speak of species. "
You can give it the name of your child, your wife, your husband. But you do not give it your own name. It's corny - Judith Winston

For a scientist who officiated in anonymity for most of his career, finally have the opportunity to nominate a species is like peeing on a tree: it's a way of saying I was there . This is mine. To name a new species is like adding a room to the vast puzzle as to leave a trace in biodiversity and in scientific history.

As his daughter, a strawberry blonde
Fautin, for example, described different kinds and nearly 50 species of anemones Sea during his career. Like any taxonomist she has her favorite. For her, it is a creature she found at low tide in New Guinea, Fiji and Singapore. Fautin gave this particular anemone-which pulls on the yellow with red spots and is equipped with tiny capsules venimeuses- the name of her husband. The nickname is purely ceremonial: Anthopleura buddemeieri, she said, has no physical resemblance to the husband in question (who was sitting next to her during this interview).

It should be noted that in taxonomic circles, giving his name to a species is not kosher, says Winston. "You can give it the name of your child, your wife, your husband. But you do not give it your own name, she said. It's tacky. "Winston, who is a specialist in marine biodiversity and especially bryozoans, has given a species name of one of his daughters," because it had the tentacles of the same orange color as its hair. She is blond Venetian. " The name is Nolella elizae. "I do not know if she will forgive me or not," she adds.

A test of fighter
To name a new species, as you can imagine, is not easy. Stephanie Bush, cephalopods researcher in Monterey, California, learned to his cost. In 2014, Bush has discovered something strange while she was in charge of studies at the Research Institute Aquarium Monterey Bay: a mislabeled octopus. doe eyes, mimosa color and small enough to carapater in the palm of the hand, the gelatinous creature had been identified as a member of the species of grimpoteuthis; in fact, it was wrong. While scientists had collected specimens since 1990, no one had taken the trouble to baptize properly.

It is Bush who scooped the challenge. Fortunately, she had an idea. Well, it was rather a joke. "It was just something that kept running through my head," she said. The name she suggested: Opisthoteuthis adorabilis. When the show Science Friday from NPR [radio public service of the US, note] came to interview Bush about his recent work in May, she made them his idea. "It's just that they are cute ... yes ..." said she said. The interviewer was thrilled. You can probably guess what happened next. The name was soon stop being a joke trotting in the head of a scientist to become a viral sensation on the internet. Soon, almost everyone had heard about the octopus so adorable that his adorable character was about to be spent in Latin.

The aim is to draw attention to the animals that people are not necessarily exposed - Stephanie Bush

Great! If not ... that Bush had never given a name to a species. Suddenly she had to stick to it. And as Bush included, this is where the real work began.

The Zappa jellyfish
To enter the name of a new kind of process, we must first make sure that no one else has already discovered and identified this particular species -which involves checking the databases and museums all over the world. Then you have to collect enough specimens for measurements and adequate descriptions. Finally, write a descriptive article and have it published. The process can take more than a year.

Where is Bush? "Not far away, I'm afraid," she said. At this point, it gathers accurate measurements, keep the bodies octopus stiffened in bottles and dissects. "They generally cease to be cute when we start dissecting them," she said. But a name that hangs like adorabilis can help gain visibility, to interest people. "The goal is to draw attention to the animals that people are not necessarily exposed," Bush said.

The expert Ferdinando Boero jellyfish loved Frank Zappa since he had seen him in concert in the 1970s Boero was particularly infatuated with the idea of ​​"conceptual continuity" that comes up in the pieces of Zappa: essentially, is the idea that even if one experiences reality as a series of individual pieces, they are in fact part of a whole transcendental. A concert can be composed of dozens of instruments and hundreds of notes. But what we hear, it is not each individual element but "high note".

An admiration mark
For years, the biologist, who lived in Genoa, Italy, wanted to meet the musician, he knew he was living in Los Angeles. But we can not just ring the doorbell of Frank Zappa. Boero then developed a plan: he would file his application to study the jellyfish in a marine station of the picturesque Bodega Bay in northern California. In 1981 he received a scholarship and immediately wrote a letter (a real letter, this was before e-mail) to Zappa (or rather his record, since he had no home address Zappa). In his letter, he said he would like Zappa to name a jellyfish in his honor.

There are millions of species, but it is all part of the diversity of life ... all branches of science are like instruments - Ferdinando Boero

It worked! After two weeks, Boero received a letter from Frank Zappa, written by his wife. It said that nothing would please her husband that having a jellyfish that bears his name. In the letter, she put the address of their house on Woodrow Wilson Drive in Los Angeles. Boero went, showed Zappa drawings of jellyfish and asked him what was the one he would like to see bear his name, from this time and for the rest of time. Giving the selection of Zappa's name Phialella happai, Boero is part of a long tradition of giving scientific species name people they admire -Think to very many creatures named in honor of the cultural treasure David Attenborough.

The big band of the sciences
Both have continued to cultivate a long relationship, which culminated last public concert of Zappa, which Boero attended Genoa in 1988. Zappa played there the song "Lonesome Cowboy Nando" -which, according Boero, spoke scientific and jellyfish. "It was strange and unbelievable," said Boero, who is now a professor of zoology at the University of Salento in Italy, which focuses in particular on biodiversity.

In Phialella zappa, Boero passion for biodiversity and that he had for Frank Zappa converged. For him, the idea of ​​conceptual continuity finds expression in the sciences: "Biodiversity is the same, he said. There are millions of species, but it is all part of the diversity of life, all branches of science are like instruments. And the orchestra to play music. And the music we receive is great note "Naming a new species, is to remember that the creative business is what is at the heart of science. An exercise in imagination, approvingly sign to the complexity of life and the opportunity to add a new chapter to our library of knowledge. With a little luck, maybe we can even put a touch of poetry.

Kamis, 18 Oktober 2018

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