Microsoft Windows or better known as Windows is a family of personal computer operating system developed by Microsoft that is based on the graph (graphical user interface).
Windows operating systems have evolved from MS-DOS, an operating system based on text mode and command-line. The first version of Windows, Windows Graphic Environment 1.0 was first introduced on 10 November 1983, but only out of the market in November 1985 designed to meet the needs of a computer to display a picture. Windows 1.0 is a 16-bit software (not an operating system) that runs on top of MS-DOS (and some variants of MS-DOS), so he will not be able to run without the operating system DOS. Version 2.x, 3.x versions are the same. Some of the latest version of Windows (starting from version 4.0 and Windows NT 3.1) is an independent operating system that is no longer dependent on MS-DOS operating system. Microsoft Windows and can be developed and can be controlled using the operating system up to 90%.
The first version of Microsoft Windows, called Windows 1.0, released on November 20, 1985 This version has many shortcomings in some functionality, so it is less popular in the market. At first Windows version 1.0 is about to called the Interface Manager, but Rowland Hanson, the head of marketing at Microsoft Corporation, Microsoft convinced the company that the name "Windows" will be "luring" consumers. Windows 1.0 is not a complete operating system, but only extends the capabilities of the MS-DOS with a graphical interface enhancements. In addition, Windows 1.0 also has the same problems and weaknesses are owned by MS-DOS.
Windows version 2 came out on December 9, 1987, and became a little more popular than its predecessor. Gained in popularity largely due to its proximity to the graphics application made by Microsoft, Microsoft Excel for Windows and Microsoft Word for Windows. Windows applications can be run from the MS-DOS, and then enter Windows to conduct its operations, and will come out by itself when the application is closed.
Microsoft Windows eventually obtain a significant improvement when Aldus PageMaker appeared in versions for Windows, which previously could only run on the Macintosh. Some computer experts noted historians as the emergence of a significant application behavior other than Microsoft's initial success as a Microsoft Windows.
Windows version 2.0x using real-mode memory model, which is only able to access up to 1 megabyte of memory. In such a configuration, Windows can run other apps multitasking, sort DESQview, which runs in protected mode offered by the Intel 80286.
Furthermore, two new versions were released, the Windows / Windows 2.1 and 286/386 2.1. As with previous versions of Windows, Windows / 286 using real-mode memory model, but it was the first version to support the High Memory Area (HMA). Windows / 386 2.1 have the kernel running in protected mode with emulation Expanded Memory Specification (EMS) standard Lotus-Intel-Microsoft (LIM), the predecessor specification Extended Memory Specification (XMS) which would finally change in the topology of IBM PC computing. All Windows and DOS-based application when it is running in real mode, which runs on the protected mode kernel using virtual 8086 mode, which is a new feature that is owned by the Intel 80386.
Windows 3.0 can run in three modes, namely real mode, standard mode, and 386 Enhanced mode, and is compatible with the Intel family of processors from Intel 8086/8088, 80286, 80386 until Windows 3.0 will try to detect which mode will used, although the user can force Windows to work in a certain mode by using certain switches when running
win / r: force Windows to run in real mode
win / s: force Windows to run in the standard mode
win / 3: force Windows to run in 386 Enhanced mode.
Version 3.0 is also the first version of Windows that runs in protected mode, although the 386 enhanced mode kernel was an enhanced version of the protected mode kernel in Windows / 386.
Due to the backward compatibility feature, Windows 3.0 applications must be compiled using 16-bit environment, so that did not use the capabilities of the Intel 80386 microprocessor, which is actually a 32-bit processor.
OS / 2
Microsoft and IBM worked together to develop a successor to the DOS operating system, which is referred to as the IBM OS / 2. OS / 2 can use all the capabilities offered by the Intel 80286 microprocessor and a memory capable of accessing up to 16 Megabytes. OS / 2 1.0 was released in 1987, which has the swapping and multitasking features, in addition to allow MS-DOS applications to run on it.
In the early 1990s, the relationship between Microsoft and IBM were stretched due to the appearance of a conflict. This is because they work together in developing a personal computer operating system, respectively (IBM with OS / 2 and Microsoft with its Windows), both have access to the code of each operating system. Microsoft requires the further development of the Windows operating system made, while IBM has a desire that all his future work should be made based on the operating system OS / 2. In an attempt to put an end to this conflict, IBM and Microsoft agreed that IBM would develop the IBM OS / 2 version 2.0, to replace OS / 2 version 1.3 and Windows 3.0, while Microsoft had to develop a new operating system, OS / 2 version 3.0, which will then replace the OS / 2 version 2.0. This Agreement does not last too long, so that the relationship of IBM and Microsoft also discontinued. IBM eventually continued development of OS / 2, while Microsoft changed the name of the operating system OS / 2 version 3.0 (which has not been released) to Windows NT.
Microsoft developed Windows 3.1, which offered some minor improvements to Windows 3.0 (as well as the ability to display the Fonts TrueType fonts, developed jointly with Apple), and also there are in it many of the bug fixes and support for multimedia. Version 3.1 also removes support for real mode, so it only runs on the protected mode which only the Intel 80286 microprocessor or higher.
The main architect of Windows NT was Dave Cutler, who was one of the leaders of the VMS operating system architect at the company Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC), which was later bought by Compaq is now part of Hewlett-Packard. Support device driver for Windows NT is also not so much because it is developing drivers for Windows NT is considered complicated by some developers, in addition to Windows NT also has superiority in its hardware abstraction model. That makes Windows NT perfect choice for server market share of local network (LAN), which in 1993 was experiencing a massive boom, along with the commodity network in the office has increased dramatically. Networking features in Windows NT offers multiple connectivity options and a vast network of course also an efficient NTFS file system.
Windows NT was the first Windows operating system that is created by using a hybrid kernel, after the previous versions only use a single monolithic kernel only.
On August 24, 1995, Microsoft has two advantages of this launch: 1) it is impossible for consumers to run Windows 95 on the DOS operating system made by Microsoft are not much cheaper; 2) although traces of DOS were never completely removed from the operating system, the version of the plug instead of a DOS version to be loaded as part of the boot process, Windows 95 runs by itself on the 386 Enhanced mode, using virtual memory and memory addressing model of flat 32-bit. The features that make an application for Win32 virtual RAM address a maximum length of 2 gigabytes (2 gigabytes with the rest reserved for the operating system). USB support in Windows 98 was also much better than its predecessor.
Before you replace it with a new version of Windows, Microsoft released Windows 95 in five different versions, namely as follows:
Windows 95 - the actual release of Windows 95
Windows 95 A - included Windows 95 Updates Original Service Release 1 (OSR1) are entered directly to the installation.
Windows 95 B - includes some other major updates, as well as the FAT32 file system, and Internet Explorer 3.0. This version is also known as Windows 95 OSR2, or many people in Indonesia call it Windows 97.
Windows 95 B USB - Windows 95 or Windows 95 OSR2.1 is a version that offers support for hardware-based bus Universal Serial Bus / USB.
Windows 95 C - or Windows 95 OSR2.5 includes all the above features, plus Internet Explorer 4.0. This version is the most recent version of the series released Windows 95.
WINDOWS NT 4.0
NT 4.0 has an interface similar to Windows 95, but using the same kernel with Windows NT, making it more stable. Indeed, there is an additional patch available for Windows NT 3.51 which is able to make NT 3.51 to NT 4.0 looks like, but is very unstable and has a lot of bugs.
Windows NT 4.0 comes in four versions:
Windows NT 4.0 Workstation
Windows NT 4.0 Server
Windows NT 4.0 Server, Enterprise Edition (which includes clustering and support for up to 8-way SMP)
Windows NT 4.0 Terminal Server
On June 25, 1998, Microsoft released a new Windows operating system, known as Windows 98 Windows 98 was considered as a minor revision to Windows 95, but is generally viewed much more stable and reliable than its predecessor, Windows 95 Windows 98 includes many new hardware drivers and support the FAT32 file system that allows better partition to have a capacity greater than 2 gigabytes, a restriction contained in the Windows 95 and USB support in Windows 98 was also much better than its predecessor.
In 1999, Microsoft released Windows 98 Second Edition, a release which offers many improvements over previous versions. Internet Connection Sharing, which is a form of Network Address Translation, which allows multiple machines in a local network to be able to use a single Internet connection lines together were introduced in this version. Many minor problems in the long Windows has been corrected, which makes Windows 98 by many people as a version of Windows 9x the most stable among all the other versions of Windows 9x.
Wlogo.pngpada February 17, 2000, a version of which was previously known as Windows NT 5.0 or "NT 5.0". Windows 2000 version is intended for two market share, ie the share market also workstation and server market share.
Among the features of Windows 2000 Active Directory is the most significant, a network model replacement for the NT domain network, which uses technology which is the industry standard, such as the Domain Name System (DNS), Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP), and Kerberos for connecting between a machine to other woods.
Windows 2000 is available in six editions, namely:
Windows 2000 Professional
Windows 2000 Server
Windows 2000 Advanced Server
Windows 2000 Datacenter Server
Windows 2000 Advanced Server Limited Edition
Windows 2000 Datacenter Server Limited EditionWindows 2000 is available in six editions, namely:
Windows 2000 Server
Windows 2000 Advanced Server
Windows 2000 Datacenter Server
Windows 2000 Advanced Server Limited Edition
Windows 2000 Datacenter Server Limited Edition
In September 2000, Microsoft introduced Windows Millennium Edition. This updated version of Windows 98 with the support of multimedia and the Internet better. This version also includes a feature "System Restore," which allows users to restore the system to a known point fine, at the time of operating system failure. The features found in Windows Me (such as Internet Explorer 5.5, Windows Media Player 7.0, and Microsoft DirectX 7.1) can even be obtained for free from the Windows Update site, except System Restore. The result, Windows Me was not considered as an operating system that is unique among his brothers of the family of Windows 9x, Windows 95 and Windows 98 Windows Me also criticized because of the problem of stability, and also support for running MS-DOS in the mode estate. People even called Windows Me as Windows Mistake Edition.
In 2001, Microsoft introduced Windows XP (which has the code name "Whistler" during development. Finally, after releasing several Windows-based versions of Windows 9x and NT, Microsoft managed to unite both the product line. Windows XP using the Windows NT 5.1 kernel, so it makes Windows NT kernel that is known for its stability into the home consumer market, to replace a Windows 9x-based products 16/32-bit aging.
Windows XP Home Edition, which is aimed at home-based desktop and laptop market.
Windows XP Home Edition N, as usual Home Edition, but do not have Windows Media Player, due to EU regulations do not allow it.
Windows XP Professional, which is intended for power users and businesses.
Windows XP Professional N, the same as the Professional Edition, but do not have Windows Media Player, due to EU regulations do not allow it.
Windows XP Media Center Edition (MCE), released in November 2002, Windows XP Home Edition is aimed at laptop and desktop environment with an emphasis on home entertainment.
Windows XP Media Center Edition 2003
Windows XP Media Center Edition 2004
Windows XP Media Center Edition 2005, which was released on October 12, 2004.
After achieving great success with Windows XP, Microsoft is not necessarily just stop developing Windows. The latest version of Windows, called Windows Vista, released on November 30, 2006 for the business for the home user while released on January 30, 2007, Windows Vista was launched in order to have a more robust security than previous versions, with the introduction of a limited user mode, which is called user Account Control (UAC), to replace the philosophy of "administrator-by-default" which are applicable to Windows XP. Windows Vista also introduces a feature graph is much more "alluring", which is called Windows Aero GUI, new applications (such as Windows Calendar, Windows DVD Maker and a few new games including Chess Titans, Mahjong, and Purble Place. Additionally, Windows Vista also offers a version of Microsoft Internet Explorer more secure, as well as a new version of Windows Media Player (version 11, Now window has released the latest its OS called window 9.