The processor is the brain or the machine from a PC, sometimes also called a microprocessor or central processing unit (CPU), which performs calculations (ALU functions) and the processing system. When we mention the word "processor", then it is often what comes to mind then is the image maker of the processor, such as Intel, AMD, VIA / Cyrix and others. This was followed by the series output of such products and information about its speed, such as the Pentium 4 - 2.4 GHz, AMD Athlon 64 3200 +, Pentium-M Centrino, Celeron 2.0GHz, 600MHz Cyrix III and others.
There are two classes distributed processors to consumers today, namely:
1. Mainstream Class / Power / Performance / High-End Processor is represented by the Pentium processor family (II, III, & 4) from Intel and families Athlon (Thunderbird, XP, Sempron) from AMD.
2. Class Value / Low-End Processor is represented by an Intel Celeron, AMD Duron, VIA Cyrix and Transmeta. What makes the difference is the speed class, the features and the amount of cache memorynya.
• L1 cache is a small amount of SRAM memory used as
cache integrated in the same module on the processor. L1 cache is locked at the same speed on the processor. Serves to temporarily store instructions and data as well as ensuring the processor has a steady supply of data to be processed, while the memory fetch and store new data.
• L2 Cache consists of SRAM chips located near the processor, but for the latest generation of processor onchip L2 cache (already integrated with the processor). L2 cache has the same function as the L1 cache and is better known as a secondary cache speed is lower than the L1 cache (but bigger capacity).
Image Processor Socket Type: Image Processor Slot type:
By the time we turn on the computer, the first device is a processor works. Processor serves as a data processor and request data from storage, the Hard Disk (HDD). This means that the data is sent from the Hard Disk after a request from the processor.
2. ROM (read only memory) read-only memory
ROM is permanent memory contained on a computer system that has been compiled and produced by the factory and normally not to be changed by the user computer. ROM consists of a main program for computer system configuration, such as BIOS, BASIC and bootstrap loader. Signals in ROM is the set of all tasks the CPU (Central Processing Unit) when the computer starts is enabled / on.
ROM image below:
The contents of ROM will not be erased by the death of the electric current. ROM on a computer provided by the vendor of computer and contains a program or data. on the PC, the ROM is commonly called the BIOS (Basic Input / Output System) or ROM-BIOS.
Process contained in the BIOS:
1. Examine the contents of CMOS (Compmentary Oxyde Metal-Semiconductor)
2. Make the handling of interrupts (Interrupt Handlers) and controlling devices
3. Initialize registers and power management
4. Perform hardware testing to ensure that all hardware is in good condition
5. Displays the settings on the system
6. Determine the device that will be used to run programs (such appliances is a hard disk)
7. Take the contents of the boot sector
In addition to the ROM, there is a chip called PROM, EPROM, and EEPROM.
3. PROM (Programmable ROM)
If the content is determined by the vendor ROM, PROM sold empty and can then be filled in by the user program. Once filled, the contents of the PROM can not be deleted.
4. EPROM (Erasable PROM)
Unlike the PROM, EPROM contents can be removed once programmed. Deletion is done by using ultraviolet light.
5. EEPROM (Electrically EPROM)
EEPROM can store data permanently, but its contents can still be erased electrically through the program. One type of EEPROM is flash memory. Flash memory is used in digital cameras, video game consoles, and the BIOS chip.
* Flash memory
6. RAM (Random access memory) random access memory:
Volatile.Semua data is passed through the instrument input on each application will be entered first into the RAM. The data contained in RAM is only temporary, when the computer is turned off, the data will be lost.
The contents of RAM are erased when the power fails. RAM is a type of memory whose contents can be changed as long as the computer is turned on and has to remember the nature of the data / programs as long an electrical current (computer life) .Sifat of RAM that can store and retrieve data very quickly.
Type of RAM on a PC are: DRAM, SDRAM, SRAM, RDRAM, and EDO-RAM.
7. DRAM (Dynamic RAM)
Is a type of RAM that periodically be refreshed by the CPU so that the data contained in them is not lost.
8. EDO RAM (Extended Data Out RAM)
Is the type of memory used in the system using the Pentium. Suitable untu which has a BUS at speeds up to 66 MHz.
9. RAM FPM (Fast Page Mode RAM-)
Before the emergence of EDO RAM, all the main memory that is present in the PC is of the type of mod-page inappropriate (fast page-mode variety). The name was also not so well recognized when only one of its kind. However technological advances have triumphed reduce access time for FPM RAM than the 120-ns (nanosaat) to the current access period namely 60-ns. However Pentium processors only mengiktiraf bass berkepantasan 66 MHz was worthy to indulge bass keupayaannya compared with keupayaan FPM RAM. With a 60-ns decorum would allow access to the RAM modules melaksana syrup page (where the page is referred to as an address space seacoast) below 30 Mhz decorum even though he was considered too slowly compared with decorum bass.
10. BEDO RAM (Burst Extended-Data-Out RAM)
To improve the appropriateness access data into DRAM memory chips, a technology that is recognized as the bursting has woken up for the purpose. This technology involves the delivery of large blocks of data to be processed to units smaller data. The term on the DRAM chip is referring to the detailed data delivery technology that includes delivery addresses several pages in memory chips.
11. L2 Cache
The term refers to the cache is kaedah forecasting and control data to be requested and already owned. If a CPU makes a request to the data, then the data should diperolehi than one of the following places namely L1 cache, L2 cache, main memory or hard cakera.
Chip L1 cache is located on top of the CPU and saiznya smaller than all three reservoirs of other data. When chip L2 cache is a memory region in isolation, and he may be configured together SRAM type memory chips. Search data is typically started in the chip L1 cache is then transferred to the chip L2 cache, and DRAM chips in cakera so hard. Chip L2 cache located between the chip DRAM and CPU type, when its function offers access to more deserving than DRAM chips achievement. Cache system is realized to allow more equitable access memory and CPU as appropriate as possible.
12. Async SRAM (Asynchronous SRAM)
Chips that are recognized as Async SRAM have any form of a processing technology since the emergence of the 386 again and still have a place in the L2 cache for most PCs. He called asynchronous indulge this type of memory chip is not connected to the system clock. So CPU must wait for the first data that has been requested rather than the L2 cache.
13. Sync SRAM (Synchronous Burst SRAM)
Like which type of SDRAM chips, memory chips, called as Sync SRAM is also associated with the system clock to make it more appropriate than the achievement Async SRAM is used for L2 cache berkelajuan around 8.5-ns. However CIP Sync SRAM will be lost when connected to the appropriateness keupayaannya bass exceeding 66 MHz.
14. PB SRAM (Pipeline Burst SRAM)
PB SRAM type memory chips using a system named as pipelining and suitability slightly lag behind system called synchronization. However the increase in technology may exceed the technology owned by Sync SRAM memory chips indulge it direkabentuk to match a bass that has a propriety 75 Mhz or higher. PB SRAM type memory chips will play a major role in establishing more achievement mikroprocessor computer system that uses a Pentium II or higher.
15. VRAM (video RAM)
VRAM type memory chips work well on achievement may see him on the video and the video kad accelerator or on the parent board that has a video technology. VRAM chips are usually used to store the content of a pixel for an exposure chart.
The use VRAM chips will provide the appropriate video achievement and seeks to reduce the pressure on the CPU. VRAM chips involves the use of two-port access to memory cells and one of it is used regularly to refresh the exposure and the other one is used to convert the data to be presented. The use of two ports can provide a decent video offerings compared with the use of chip DRAM and SRAM chips that have only one access port.
16. WRAM (Windows RAM)
As where the VRAM chips, memory chips kind WRAM also has multiple ports and it is used for graphics offerings. Operation WRAM memory chips are the same type as the type of VRAM chips, but it uses a higher broadband in addition to some characteristic graphs for the application builder uses. WRAM memory chips also use a type of system that is recognized as a data buffering to improve the appropriateness refresher multiple screens.
17. SGRAM (Synchronous Graphics RAM)
Type of SGRAM memory chips have been used primarily in kad video accelerator and it is a kind of single berport RAM. His achievements dipertingkatkan with the use of a system called dual-bank memory will allow the two surfaces can be opened in the quest. The use of memory chips is appropriate for the type of SGRAM video player 3-D (three-dimensional) indulge contained an inscribed block that will flog cargo exposure graph on a screen. Three-dimensional video typically requires proper prod namely in the range of 30 to 40 frames a moment in the entire period.
18. SDRAM (Synchronous Dynamic RAM)
Is the most common type of RAM used in PCs today. RAM is synchronized by the system clock and has a higher speed than DRAM. Suitable for systems with BUS which has a speed of up to 100 MHz.
19. DDR3 SDRAM
DDR3 SDRAM stands for Double Data Rate three Synchronous Dynamic Random Access Memory. In electronic engineering, DDR3 SDRAM is a high-speed RAM used to store data when the computer is working. Besides being a part of the computer, DDR3 SDRAM is also used in other digital electronic devices.
20. DDR SDRAM
DDR SDRAM stands for Double Data Rate Synchronous Dynamic Random Access Memory. Physically DDR SDRAM memory IC which is often used in computers. As the name implies (DDR, Double Data Rate), this memory has twice the bandwidth of SDRAM memory. In one heartbeat cycle (clock cycle) of data capable menstranmisi two (double pumped, dual-pumped, double transition), which is when the curve is high and the clock signal when the clock signal curve is falling. DDR SDRAM modules was first introduced and used for the PC in 2000.
21. SRAM (Static RAM)
Is a type of memory that does not need a refresher by the CPU so that the data contained therein remains stored properly. This type of RAM has a higher speed than DRAM.
22. RDRAM (Rambus Dynamic RAM)
Is a type of memory that is faster and more expensive than SDRAM. This memory is used on a system with a Pentium 4.
RAM on the PC expressed in units of mega bytes and sold in the form of modules; for example, size 64 MB or 128 MB. RAM can be SIMM or DIMM.
23. SIMM (Single In-Line Memory Module)
Having the RAM chips on only one side of the board.
24. DIMM (Dual In-Line Memory Module)
Having the RAM chips on both sides of the board.
SCSI (Small Computer System Interface) is a type of interface used for computer components such as hard drives, optical drives, scanners and tape drives. It is a competing technology to standard IDE (Integrated Drive Electronics). While cheaper IDE technology built into the motherboard, SCSI is a technology that is added to the purchase SCSI controller. SCSI card plugged into a PCI slot and an internal SCSI device which is then connected to this card.
Actually SCSI is faster technology more powerful than IDE, and have traditionally been widely used in servers. Aside from speed, another advantage over IDE is that the SCSI card can connect 15 or more devices in a chain. The controller recognizes the ID of each SCSI device separately, allowing great flexibility to any system expansion.
SCSI devices, particularly hard drives, designed for use in addressing the needs of the server market. For this reason, SCSI is usually made with a higher standard and with a better warranty than an IDE drive with a capacity class. However, the increase in the speed and quality is directly proportional to the price. SCSI components are significantly more expensive than their IDE cousins.
One example of a SCSI card built into the PCI slot
The motherboard is the board where the components of the computer is plugged in and can be protective in touch. fiberglass panel that is placed at the bottom (on the desktop casing) or next (on the tower casing) which are useful for connecting the components of the system by means of wired or plugged directly in the slot.
Motherboard • How it works:
In a computer system, peripheral-peripheral will be connected to each other in
mainboard and can continue instruction through channels on the board. The entire peripherals that are connected will be a complete computer system. While the function of the mainboard in general is the input current and the current channel data required in the course of the process on the computer.
• The main chipset on the mainboard there are two: the Northbridge and Southbridge. Northbridge function is to bridge the flow of data around main memory and the processor and set the power management work. While Southbridge function is to regulate the peripheral-peripheral work sort of IDE controller, PCI bus, AGP, and the I / O lainny
Main Components Mainboard / Motherboard
Components on the motherboard which is mostly made up of two chips, north bridge and south bridge. The main function is to regulate the flow of data chipset between components installed on the motherboard. Two of the chipset on the motherboard itself usually has a different task from one another.
On the north bridge chip is used to regulate the flow of data to and from the processor, the AGP bus, and the system's main memory. Meanwhile, the south bridge chip that regulates the flow of data from the input device output, the PCI bus, the interface hard disk, and floppy, as well as other external devices. Due north bridge chip is more vital than the south bridge works, I wonder if this is fitted with a chip heatsink, fan, or a combination heatsink and fan by the manufacturer.
Stands for Accelerated Graphics Port. Its function is to distribute the data from the CPU to the graphics card without having to go through the main memory, thus graphical data processing can be accelerated. Another advantage is the ability to AGP execute texture maps directly from the main memory. Comes with a variety of flavors, today most motherboards include AGP 4X bus that works at a frequency of 266MHz. For now, the AGP port is used for installing a new graphics card which is actually faster than using the PCI bus. However, some recent motherboards have included Pro AGP port that can be fitted with either a 4X AGP-based graphics card or AGP based Pro itself.
This socket is where to put the memory on the motherboard. The memory sockets have different forms for different types of memory. Most motherboards have slots 3 or 4 pieces, depending on the chipset used. For SDRAM memory, DIMM sockets must-have is a socket 168 pins, while for the type of DDR memory, a socket is a socket 184 pin installed.
Is to place the processor. If antiquity, there are other options besides socket system is the system slot. However, after the era of the second generation PentiumIII, slot type is then abandoned because the cost of production is more expensive than using a socket. For business this processor socket, choose a motherboard with the right socket processor. Socket 370 for Intel PentiumIII and Celeron, Socket A for AMD Athlon and Duron processors, as well as the socket 423/478 for Pentium4 processor.
Stands for Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor. From the shape is visible, it is a component in the form of IC (integrated circuit) that functions to accommodate the BIOS settings and can keep its settings for mendayainya battery is still good.
Appliances External Port (serial, parallel, audio, USB)
Usually located in the rear position of the motherboard. Its function is as a means to provide input (input) and output (output) on a computer system. This current generation motherboards have included also a USB port for "in touch" with
Other peripherals such as printers, scanners, digital cameras, and other USB-based peripherals. In addition to the USB port, sometimes on some motherboards also included an Ethernet port to enter into the computer network. The type of this kind is not very much, but it is very helpful especially for use in a small office or a cafe that had a minimal budget.
Power Supply Connector (power supply, fan)
Its function is to supply power to all the components that are connected to the motherboard.
Serves to connect the button / switch and indicator on the chassis to the motherboard. On a Pentium 4-based motherboards, also included an additional connector port at 12 volts so that the processor can work.
IDE and Floppy Connector
which is an interface that connects the hard drive and floppy disk to the motherboard. Currently hard drive interface on the motherboard is the widely used IDE Ultra ATA / 100 is capable of delivering data transfer speeds of up to 100 MB / sec. Maxtor is developing a new interface that is Ultra ATA / 133. But until this anniversary edition finished writing, there is no updated information that the interface is getting good response from other vendors. No less important in determining the size of the motherboard is recognizing.
There are several types of motherboard sizes, ranging from the AT, ATX and micro ATX. These measures are called the form factor. In general, the motherboard-motherboard ATX now using technology. Motherboardmotherboard standard class there is a micro ATX type, while the motherboard mid end or high end most use the ATX form factor. Although the form factor is different, each viscera motherboard has the same standardization, so that it only affects the size of the casing which option will be used.
27. The processor socket.
This socket is where the processor is installed. Processor socket type determines what can be installed in the socket. So it can only be installed a certain socket processor only.
28. Memory Slot.
This slot is used to install the computer's main memory. Memory slot types also vary, depending on the system it uses.
The designation for the main components that manage data traffic between the processor and the memory system of the main channel motherboard.
Northbridge term for helper component that connects the northbridge with other components or peripherals.
31. The PCI Express x16 slot,
A special slot that can be fitted with the latest generation VGA card.
32. PCI Express x1 slot
A slot for installing peripherals (card or cards) other than the VGA card.
33. AGP slot
A special slot for VGA card installed generation before any PCI Express slot.
34. PCI slot
A slot commonly used untu install the card or cards at speeds below the AGP slot and PCI Express.
35. The BIOS (Basic Input-Output System)
It is a small program that is inserted into the IC ROM or Flash is used to store the configuration of a motherboard.
36. The CMOS battery
A special battery to provide power to the BIOS.
37. SATA port
An interface to the latest generation storage media. SATA ports can be used to connect Hard Disk IDE Port with the computer system, a media interface before generation SATA storage
38. Port Floppy Disks
Used to connect a removable media or storage media that can be removed which Diskette or Floppy Disk.
39. Port Power
Which is the port to provide power to the computer system.
40. Back Panel
A collection of ports that is usually placed at the back of the casing or container PCs. Ports or plugs are usually in the back of a PC computer case is:
41. Port PS / 2 Mouse
To connect with the computer mouse.
42. Port PS / 2 Keyboard
To install the keyboard.
43. Parallel Port
To attach low-speed peripherals with eight-bit data width. Typically used to attach a USB printer before generation.
44. Serial Port
Used to attach low-speed peripherals with serial data transfer mode. But now rarely used.
45. SPDIF port
Used to connect computers and peripherals such as home theater audio.
46. Port Firewire
To connect high-speed external equipment such as video capture or video streaming.
47. RJ45 port
Used to connect a computer to a LAN network.
48. The USB port
Used to interface with peripherals or external devices a new generation replaces the parallel and serial ports.
49. Audio port
Used to connect computers and audio systems such as speakers, microphones, line-in and line-out.
Stands for Advanced Technology Attachment This term refers to the technology transfer of data from the computer (motherboard) to the hard drive / optical drive. ATA is an abbreviation of Advance Technology Attachment, a standard used to connect hard disks, CD-ROM, or DVD-ROM drive on the computer. Serial ATA host-adapters and devices communicate via a high-speed serial cable over two pairs of conductors. In contrast, parallel ATA (the redesignation for the legacy ATA specifications) used 16 data is conductors each operating at a much lower